Gender Mainstreaming in REDD
Cập nhật ngày: 02/11/2010
full potential of forests in addressing poverty and climate change concerns
cannot be grasped without an understanding of the gender differentiated rights,
roles and responsibilities related to women’s and men’s use of forest and
Women play a prominent role in
the individual household and at community level. Decisions within households
are most often depending on the ideas and cooperation of the women, e.g. with
reference to use of cooking stoves, use of non-forest products to replace use
of forest products – e.g. biogas systems, agricultural residue utilization
– or options for income generation not
based on use of forest products. How the financial resources committed to REDD
are managed, delivered and structured plays a key role in determining how men
and women benefit from REDD initiatives.
Voice up! (Photo by Pham Tien Anh)
Roles: Women’s roles in forest
management are usually limited to those of subsistence needs for fuel wood,
medicinal products, wild foods, fodder for livestock, and selling small
quantities of fuel wood in local markets; while men’s roles are more likely to
be linked to timber and non-timber forest products extraction for commercial
purposes. Moreover, women’s absence or ineffective participation in local,
provincial and national structures for forest management, combined with their
lack of power, reduce their opportunities to challenge the claims of other
actors, or to demand their rights to these resources.
Rights: Women are on a global
basis commonly without any formal rights to land or forests. The
differentiation by gender has major implications for ownership to forest land
and by-products that affect the selection of species for planning and forest
management decisions. When a price is put on the carbon content of a forest,
incentives for land acquiring and exploitation surge. Subsequently, women
without official land titles or user rights are barred from their traditional
forest areas. According to the Land Law from 2003, the Red Book land tenure
certificates can now be signed by both husband and wife. Still, this is not yet
Values: Women and men derive
different values from forests. Any incentive scheme that favors the carbon
value of ecosystems more than other values may lead to serious negative impacts
on food and water sovereignty, access to traditional medicines and seeds, and
other socio-economic, cultural, spiritual and ecological values of forests,
which often relate to the activities that women undertake in the forest.
The UN-REDD Programme aims to
integrate women in the operation of the National REDD Programme and the
planning and implementation of the activities at commune and village level. In
particular, the benefit distribution system will incorporate a gender
perspective, to ensure that the needs of women, who frequently form a
marginalized group in the forest sector, are taken into account, and that REDD+
can act as an impetus to improved gender equality. Thus, benefits made to
households and communities should include safeguards to ensure gender equality.
Strategies to close the gender gap must not take the perspective that women are
unfortunate victims of climate change, but instead view women as potentially
powerful agents of change.
Gurung, Jeannette with A. Quesada: Gender-differentiated Impacts of REDD to be addressed in REDD Social
Standards. CARE Denmark, 2009.
Alboher et al. Briefs on Gender and Climate Funds: Reducing Emissions from
Deforestation and Degradation. Working Draft, UNDP, 2009.
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